To investigate the effects of governmental philanthropy on a war-torn economy in post WWII Europe.
Three Fifty-Minute Class Periods
The learners will:
Instructor Note: use definitions from www.learningtogive.org/materials/
||Altruism (n) Selfless concern for the welfare of others – altruist (n), altruistic (adj.), altruistically (adv.)
||(n, pl., -cies) A form of government exercised either directly by the people or through their elected representatives; rule by the majority; the practice of legal, political, or social equality
||(n) An organization created from designated funds from which the income is distributed as grants to not-for-profit organizations or, in some cases, to people
||(n) An underlying base or foundation; the basic facilities needed for the functioning of a system
||(n) When discussing the nonprofit sector used to emphasize the important role these organizations play as a “third force” outside of the realm of government and private business
|Non-governmental organization (NGO)
||(n) Term used by non-American countries to define the nonprofit sector
||(n) 1. The giving of one’s time, talent or treasure for the sake of another- or for the common good – Robert Payton, 2. Voluntary action for the public good -Robert Payton, 3. Voluntary giving, voluntary service, and voluntary association, primarily for the benefit of others – Robert Payton, 4. Giving and serving –Richard J. Bentley and Luana G. Nissan, 5. Active effort to promote human welfare, 6. A tradition, a spirit, and a sector of society – Maurice G. Gurin and Jon Van Til
||(n) A nongovernmental, nonprofit organization with funds and program managed by its own trustees or directors that was established to maintain or aid social, educational, religious or other charitable activities serving the common welfare, primarily through the making of grants
||(n) Independent sector, non-governmental, non-business sector
||(n) A common set of morals found to be applicable world wide
- use the definitions above and in Attachment One: Definitions to explain the differences between philanthropy, governmental philanthropy and private sector philanthropy as each relates to post World War II Europe.
- study the effects of The Marshall Plan on the war torn countries of Europe.
- produce evidence citing government and private sector philanthropy in post World War II Europe.
- support a position on whether or not The Marshall Plan was philanthropic.
- demonstrate problem solving and decision-making skills in expressing opinions about what may or may not have happened in post WWII Europe if the U.S. had not put The Marshall Plan into effect.
- Attachment One: Definitions Vocabulary Terms
- Attachment Two: Research Questions Explanation of the Marshall Plan
- Attachment Three: Peer Group Task Questions
- Access to Internet /media or library center
- Handout 1
- Handout 2
- Research Questions
- Handout 3
- Peer Group Task Questions
As the students enter the classroom, have a picture of war-torn Europe posted so it is visible to all students. Have a picture of post 9/11 lower Manhattan and the Pentagon ready to show the class after you ask the following question or use pictures of Baghdad after the Iraq war. Ask the students to think about what they would want someone to do for them if this was what our country looked like after a war. Be prepared to field issues such as laying blame, establishing fault, separating civilians from soldiers and the government. Brainstorm ideas and write on the board ideas of what it would be like to live there after a war. Put pictures up showing the aftermath of 9/11 or the Iraq war. Have the students react to what they recall of the humanitarian, philanthropic efforts of individuals, corporations, foundations and government efforts during the days and weeks following.
Instructor Note: Assign the text sections applicable to this lesson.
- Give each student Attachment One: Definitions and Attachment Two: Research Questions, allowing enough time for reading.
- Discuss the meaning of each of the vocabulary words. Connect terms to text reading and Attachment Two: Research Questions.
- Discuss what The Marshall Plan was and what it meant to Europe.
- Discuss the following quote from George C. Marshall.
" Our policy is directed not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation and chaos.”
- Students should answer the research questions in Attachment Two: Research Questions. Allow time to research, write answers and discuss the answers. Access to Internet sources, texts and research materials in the school library or media center is necessary.
- The teacher will divide the students into diverse groups of four. Have each group select one of the following nations of western Europe: United Kingdom, West Germany, Italy, France, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey.
Instructor Note: You may assign two countries to some groups.
- Give Attachment Three: Peer Group Task Questions to each group as the guide to their research and basis for their presentations.
- Allow a minimum of three class periods for the research.
- Group presentations.
- Administer quiz or test on content.
Evaluate Attachment Two: Research Questions as submitted by each student, peer group presentations, student research, class participation, teacher-observations of each component, quiz or test on The Marshall Plan.
Lesson Developed By:
DeWitt Public Schools
Herbison Woods Middle School
DeWitt, MI 48820
In our class discussions we will be using these concepts and terms relating to philanthropy. You will be responsible for demonstrating knowledge of these terms on quizzes and tests.
||(n) A union, relationship or connection by a common interest|
||(n) Selfless concern for the welfare of others – altruist (n), altruistic (adj.), altruistically (adv.)|
||(n) A set of morals based upon major beliefs of a democracy and written in federal documents such as the Constitution|
||(n) A religious organization whose purpose is to aid those in need|
||(n) An organization created from designated funds from which the income is distributed as grants to not-for-profit organizations or, in some cases, to people|
||(n) A person who is concerned for human welfare, especially through philanthropy|
||(n) When discussing the nonprofit sector used to emphasize the important role these organizations play as a “third force” outside of the realm of government and private business|
||(n) An underlying base or foundation; the basic facilities needed for the functioning of a system|
||(n) Any not-for-profit or tax-exempt organizations collectively that are specifically not associated with any government, government agency or commercial enterprise|
||(n) 1. The giving of one’s time, talent or treasure for the sake of another- or for the common good – Robert Payton, 2. Voluntary action for the public good -Robert Payton, 3. Voluntary giving, voluntary service, and voluntary association, primarily for the benefit of others – Robert Payton, 4. Giving and serving –Richard J. Bentley and Luana G. Nissan, 5. Active effort to promote human welfare, 6. A tradition, a spirit, and a sector of society – Maurice G. Gurin and Jon Van Til|
||(n) Independent sector, non-governmental, non-business sector|
Read this background information and answer the questions following each section. You may use your textbooks, Internet or other media sources and references to complete the task. After you answer each question, cite the source where you obtained your information giving the following information: Author or web site, title of article and date of publication or web listing.
After WWII ended, the war-torn nations of Europe faced famine (starvation) and economic crisis. The United States proposed to rebuild the continent in the interest of political stability and a healthy world economy. The foreign ministers of the United States, the United Kingdom, France and the Soviet Union met in Moscow in March and April 1947. They tried to draw up a German peace treaty. The ministers did not cooperate in designing ways to cease the Allies occupation of Germany or unifying Germany. On June 5, 1947, Secretary of State, George C. Marshall first called for American assistance in restoring the economic infrastructure of Europe because he realized that the U.S.S.R. would not cooperate. In fact, The Marshall Plan channeled over $13 billion to finance the economic recovery of Europe. This plan restored the confidence of the European people in the economic future of their own countries. The Allies, not including Russia, known as U.S.S.R., unified the German former war zones they controlled. That part was called West Germany with the Soviet controlled part called East Germany. In September of 1949, Western Germany was eligible for Marshall Plan funding.
At the time the United States saw the plan as being generous to Europe. The Soviet Union viewed it as interference and refused to allow Poland or Czechoslovakia from taking part. Some historians believe that The Marshall Plan was not philanthropic but:
- Saved the U.S. Economy from backsliding into a depression.
- Allowed the U.S. to remake the European economy in the image of the U.S. economy.
- Created a public organization for private companies.
- Gave U.S. companies a place to invest their money.
Who exactly was this George C. Marshall? What would his resume have said that would have the president select him for the office?
What was the evidence that the United States was heading for an economic downturn? Make sure you use employment statistics as one of your criteria.
Find two U.S. companies that participated heavily in the Marshall Plan and briefly describe their impact. Use dollars and cents to prove your selections.
Other historians believe what the U.S. did for the Europeans was true philanthropy because:
- The U.S. rebuilt European cities.
- The U.S. rebuilt European factories.
- The U.S. provided jobs and income to the European people through these cities and factories.
- The U.S. provided Europeans with goods and services that they could buy.
- The U.S. provided the Europeans with factories to make goods that they could sell.
- It returned to the European people a sense of stability and security.
Research Questions: Use your texts, this reading selection or Internet sources to answer the following.
- Discover two U.S. private philanthropic efforts in Europe during this period immediately after WWII. Describe those efforts. Clue: refugees from concentration camps, medical aid, children’s programs.
- Give two proofs that Europe became stable and secure.
- Give one reason why U.S. citizens were or were not altruistic in their approach to Western Europe after the War.
Peer Group Task Questions
Questions for Discussion and to include in your group presentations
- Fifty years ago, then Secretary of State George C. Marshall proposed a plan of economic trade and aid (the Marshall Plan) to help a Europe devastated by World War II. How did the plan work and what was involved?
- Secretary of State Marshall believed that countries whose people do not go hungry and who trade with each other are less likely to go to war. Do you think this is true today? How does economic aid help bring about this result?
- After he proposed the Marshall Plan in 1947, many people in the U.S. thought the $13 billion over four years proposed was too much money. Our lawmakers in Congress were eventually convinced to provide the funds. What convinced them to do this?
- We have been providing economic aid to foreign countries long after the Marshall Plan. Discover another foreign aid program since the Marshall Plan and do you think our aid to that country has been a success or failure? Why?
- It took leadership by the President, the Secretary of State and the Congress to carry out the Marshall Plan. Why did these people go to such great lengths to make the Marshall Plan a reality? What does this tell about problems in the world affecting our country today?
The above was adapted from: Guide for teachers at http://www.usaid.gov/multimedia/video/marshall/
For your individual country, include the following information:
- What happened to this country during WWII? Include information regarding casualties, costs, damage to land, government, was it invaded, invaded another nation?
- What were the economic problems facing this nation after the war?
- What infrastructure problems did the Marshall Plan address, and evaluate the successes and failures.
- Describe the U.S. supported third sector philanthropy programs within the country
- Who were those individuals within that nation that stepped forward and provided the leadership and stewardship necessary for recovery.