Glossary of Philanthropic Terms

Grade Level: 
6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
An alphabetical glossary of philanthropic terms



(n) Anti-slavery activist


(n) A practice based on direct action to affect changes in government and social conditions


(n) A form of communication designed to persuade someone of something


(n) the act or process of writing or speaking in favor of, or supporting, a cause


(n) One who writes, speaks, or acts in favor of a person or issue (v) to plead in favor of


(n) A union, relationship, or connection by a common interest


(n) Selfless concern for the welfare of others – altruist (n), altruistic (adj.), altruistically (adv.)


(n) A federal program for participants age 16 and older to engage in full-time service, earn a stipend, and receive educational financial awards

annual gift

(n) Contributions made to nonprofit agencies in support of their yearly fund raising

annual report

(n) A voluntary report issued by a foundation, nonprofit organization, or corporate grantmaking program that provides financial data describing their grantmaking activities


(n, pl. ties) Annual payment of an income or allowance


(n) The breakdown of the individual's connection with society – a concept created by Emile Durkheim


(n) A remedy that counteracts


(n) A policy of segregation and political and economic discrimination against those of non-European backgrounds


(n) A more or less permanent increase in value due to an upward change in the market price or due to an inherent quality or qualities that enhance the desirability of, and hence the demand for, a product over time


(n) somebody trained by a skilled professional


(n) A skilled manual laborer who makes products that are functional and/or decorative


(n) The amount of capital or principal –money, stocks, bonds, real estate, or other resources – controlled by a foundation or corporate giving program

asset mapping

(n) Finding the positive values in a community and building on those values so as to create a stronger community; important character building qualities found to help children be successful

asylum seeker

(n) A person who flees his or her own country and seek sanctuary in another country; asylum gives one the right to be recognized as a refugee and receive legal protection and material assistance


(n) Verification or examination of financial accounts or records



(n) Something that gets in the way and separates


(n) Personal judgment; a way we think about things that is formed by our experience


(n) The grantee receiving funds from a foundation or corporate giving program is the beneficiary, although society benefits as well; a person receiving a gift through a will


(n) an advantage or profit gained from something; a social event or entertainment to raise money for a person or cause – benefit (v) to gain an advantage


(n) The inclination to be charitable – benevolent (adj.)


(v) To give or leave someone by will; to hand down – bequeathal (n)


(n) The act of giving or passing on to another

Bill of Rights

(n) The first ten amendments to the United States Constitution, these rights are fundamental and include the basic privileges of all United States citizens

board of directors

(n) Individuals who are elected to serve on the managerial board of a corporation

board of trustees

(n) Another name for a governing board


(n) A duty or binding agreement; an investment vehicle


(v) To abstain from dealing with, buying, or using a product or service as a means of protest


(n) The total amount of money allocated for a certain purpose including both income and expenditures – budget (v)



(n) A series of steps, operations, or actions planned to achieve a goal


(n) Innate ability for growth, development, or accomplishment

capital gains

(n) The amount of increase realized from selling a capital asset minus original cost

capital gains tax

(n) Tax on the realized gain


(n) The representational net worth of a business; used to describe fundraising for a building or major piece of equipment


(n) The economic system in which the means of distribution and production are privately owned and operated for private profit in a free market

case statement

(n) A document that sets forth, in detail, the reasons why an organization merits financial support

challenge grant

(n) A grant awarded that will be paid only if the donee organization is able to raise additional funds from another source(s)

character education

(n) A curriculum used in schools to develop children's awareness and tolerance of other people and to develop a standard set of morals or values for children


(adj) related to giving to the needy

charitable deduction

(n) The portion of a gift/donation (money or property) that can be deducted from the donor's income subject to federal, or sometimes state, income tax

charitable sector

(n) Refers to the nonprofit sector emphasizing the support and the mission of those organizations to help others


(n) Money or help given to aid the needy; an organization, fund, or institution whose purpose is to aid those in need – derived from the Christian concept of caritas, meaning love of one's neighbor

child development

(n) All aspects of human growth from conception through adolescence


(n) A resident of a town or city; a native or naturalized person entitled to protection from a government – citizenship (n)


(adj) Relating to or of a citizen, city, or citizenship

civic duty

(n) To participate as a citizen in citizenship related actions

civic education

(n) Teaching that is focused on government and citizen service.

civic engagement

(n) A person's connections with the life of their communities - Robert Putnam

civic responsibility

(n) A person's duty or obligation to their community as a citizen

civic virtue

(n) positive behavior that supports group well-being


(adj) Relating to citizens; relating to the legal proceedings concerned with the rights of private individuals

civil rights

(n) Rights guaranteed to citizens; the specific rights provided by the 13th and 14th amendments of the United States Constitution

Civil Rights Movement

(n) actions taken between 1955 and 1968 to outlaw racial discrimination

civil society

(n) A set of intermediate associations which are neither the state nor the extended family; civil society therefore includes voluntary associations and firms and other corporate bodies

cognitive concept

(n) To come up with an idea or opinion through careful thinking and pondering


(v) To cooperate or work with another person or organization – collaboration (n), collaborator (n)

common good

(n) Working together with other members for the greater benefit of all; promotes the welfare of the community


(n) Resources that are not owned, either privately or by the state, but are left open for free use by all comers


(n) The shared good of the whole group of people

commonwealth education

(n) Experiential teaching where service is public work- creating things, processes, solving problems that have lasting public and civic impact, especially in cooperative efforts with others – Harry Boyte


(n) Determination to get something done; a pledge to a person


(n, pl. –ies) A group of people living in the same area and under the same government; a group having common interests and goals and who work together

community capital

(see also social capital) (n) Personal investment of time through social interactions that builds trust and enables participants to act together more effectively to pursue shared objectives - Robert Putnam

community foundation

(n) An organization that makes grants for charitable purposes in a specific community or region. Funds are usually derived from many donors and held in an endowment independently administered; income earned by the endowment is then used to make grants

community needs

(n) Conditions that are essential to improving a community

community service

(n) Volunteering to improve upon aspects of a community; service performed by groups or individuals to benefit the common good

community service education

(n) Experiential teaching and learning where the focus is on acts of helping and caring for others, particularly the less fortunate – Harry Boyte

company-sponsored foundation

(n) A private foundation whose grant funds are derived primarily from the contributions of a profit-making business organization


(v) To come to agreement with both sides giving a little

conflict resolution

(n) To solve an outstanding problem or issue by peaceable means


(n) A feeling of obligation to do what is good and right


(n) A general agreement; a collective opinion


(n) The natural result from a preceding condition or action; the effect


(n) The set of fundamental rules governing the politics of a nation or subnational body. In 1787, at a Constitutional Convention the United States constitution was written


(v) To give something to someone – contribution (n), contributor (n), contributive (adj.), contributory (adj.), contributively (adv.)


(v) To work together toward a common cause – cooperation (n)


(adj) Willing to cooperate with others – cooperatively (adv.), cooperativeness (n)

corporate or company-sponsored foundation

(n) A private foundation whose grant funds are derived primarily from the contributions of a profit-making business organization. Examples include Dow Chemical Foundation and the Ford Motor Company Fund

Corporation for National Service

(n) A quasi-public organization established by the National Community Service Act(s) 1990, 1993 to provide federal government support for a range of national and community service programs


(n) Mental or moral strength to face danger without fear – courageous (adj.) - courageously (adv.)


(adj) Marked by the ability to create; inventive; imaginative – creatively (adv.), creativeness (n)


(n) An unstable condition in a political, social, or economic situation that needs immediate and decisive action or change


(v) Prepare for growing, as in a garden


(n) The values, beliefs and perceptions of the world that are learned and are shared by members of a community or society, and which they use to interpret experiences and to generate behavior, and that are reflected in their own behavior


(n, pl. –la, -lums) The courses offered in an educational program



(n) factual information that can be organized and analyzed for making decisions

delayed gratification

(n) To put off immediate reward to pursue a longer term goal


(v) To say or do something intentionally; to plan in advance – deliberateness (n), deliberation (n), deliberately (adv.)


(n, pl., -cies) A form of government exercised either directly by the people or through their elected representatives; rule by the majority; the practice of legal, political, or social equality

democratic values

(n) A set of morals based upon major beliefs of a democracy and written in federal documents such as the Constitution


(v) To show or prove by reasoning or evidence; to make a public protest – demonstration (n), demonstrator (n)


(adj) Serving to point out or demonstrate; able to prove beyond any doubt; conclusive and convincing


(adj) Reliable; can be counted on to follow through


(n) Commitment to get it done

developing countries

(n) Countries with low levels of material well-being

development fundraising

(n) A term used to define the total process of organizational or institutional fundraising, frequently inclusive of public relations and alumni affairs


(n) Action or treatment based on prejudice, or a preconceived opinion

distribution committee

(n) The board responsible for making grant decisions


(n) The great range of individual differences that exist in each species


(n) Variety; including people of different cultures or races


(n) One who gives, donates, or contributes; individual or organization that makes a grant or contribution



(n) The social science relating to the production, distribution, consumption, and distribution of goods and services


(adj) Not wasteful; frugal; operating with little waste

economic migrant

(n) Someone who leaves his or her country of origin for financial reasons, rather than due to persecution or violation of human rights like refugees


(v) To manage thriftily; to use sparingly – economizer (n)


(adj) Able to produce the desired outcome

Emancipation Proclamation

(n) Document declaring freedom of slaves

emergency preparedness

(n) Response to and mitigation of any man-made or natural disaster


(n) Identification with and understanding the feelings of another person – empathetic (adj.), empathic (adj.)


(v) To authorize; to delegate; to license

employee matching gift

(n) A contribution to a charitable organization by a company employee that is matched by a similar contribution from the employer


(n) public support for


(n) Funds intended to be kept permanently and invested to provide income for continued support of an organization

enlightened self-interest

(n) Sacrificing time and resources to the benefit of the whole, which, in turn, benefits self; understanding that what is good for the community is good for me

ennobled self

(n) Defines when a person acts upon their own personal values and in turn experiences a feeling of personal satisfaction - defined by Amitai Etzioni, author of The New Golden Rule


(adj) Equal treatment of all concerned


(n) A usually large or extensive piece of land containing a large house; in law, the nature, degree, and extent of ownership or use of property; total market value of all forms of property which a person owns; total assets of a deceased person

estate planning

(n) Planning for the management of all of an individual's assets for the benefit of the person and his or her heirs

estate taxes

(n) A tax usually progressive in character levied upon the gross estate of a deceased person before its division


(n, pl. - ics) The system of moral values; the principle of right or good conduct


(adj) Relating to or of ethics; conforming to right principles of conduct as accepted by a specific profession – ethically (adv.)

ethical decision-making

(n) Using a set of morals/values when problem-solving


(n) The act of leaving out

experiential learning

(n) A hands-on approach to teaching and learning


(n) Making use of something for your own advantage

extended family

(n) Of or pertaining to persons not included in the immediate family nucleus and who may not be related by blood





(adj) Achieving a proper balance of conflicting interests; a fair decision; impartial


(adj.) Just and impartial thinking/logic – fair-mindedness (n)

fair trade

(adj) An organized movement that helps producers in developing countries get better trading conditions

fair use

(adj) A legal doctrine that allows, with restrictions, portions of copyrighted materials to be used without permission of the copyright owner

faith-based charities

(n) A religious organization whose purpose is to aid those in need


(n, pl. –ies) Parents and their children; a group of people connected by blood or marriage and sharing common ancestry; the members of a household; a group or class of like things

family foundation

(n) An independent private foundation whose funds are derived from members of a single family


(n) A friendly relationship the condition or fact of having common interests, Ideals, or experiences


(adj) Relating to or pertaining to the holding of something in trust

food distribution

(n) A method of distributing or transporting food or drink from one place to another; an important part of public nutrition

food insecurity

(n) The risk or fear of not having consistent access to food that meets people's dietary needs and food preferences; not being sure one will have enough food or the right food to feel full, grow, and be healthy


(n) An organization created from designated funds from which the income is distributed as grants to not-for-profit organizations or, in some cases, to people


(n) Soliciting money to benefit a cause or organization




(n) Sharing freely; abundant; overflowing – generously (adv.), generous (adj.)

gift giving

(v) When a contribution is made


(n) A purpose; the terminal point of a race or journey deed


(n) The authoritative administration of public policy and affairs of a nation, state or city; the system or policy by which a political unit is governed; any governed territory, district or area


(v) A financial donation given to support a person, organization, project or program. Most grants are awarded to not-for-profit organizations; to allow; to consent to; to admit something as being the truth; in law, to transfer property – grant, (n) Grantee (n), grantor (n), granter (n), grantmaker (n)

grant proposal

(n) The document submitted to the foundation or other potential funding source in which the organization presents its request for support

grassroots fundraising

(n) Efforts to raise money from individuals or groups from the local community on a broad basis

grassroots organization

(n) A group consisting of local participants who work together originally to improve upon their community and extend to a broader basis


(n) The state of appreciation and gratefulness; thankfulness



(n) A person who inherits another's property or title


(n) Property that is inherited; something handed down from past generations; a legacy


(n) A woman of heroic character


(n) A person noted for courageous acts or nobility of purpose.

human rights

(n) Inalienable moral entitlement attached to all persons equally, simply by virtue of their humanity, irrespective of race, nationality, or membership of any particular social group. They specify the minimum conditions for human dignity and a tolerable life


(n) A person who is concerned for human welfare, especially through philanthropy


(adj) an uneasy or unpleasant feeling caused by an empty stomach



(n) The act of implicating or state of being implicated; the act of implying; an indirect expression; something implied

impulse spending

(n) Buying without considering the benefits and consequences


(n) An increase; something gained are added, especially one of a series of regular addictions – incremental (adj.)


(n) A legal deed or contract; a contract obligating one party to work another for a specified period of time – indenture (v)

independent foundation

(n) A grant-making organization usually classified by the IRS as a private foundation; operates independently from its original donors or original source of funds.

independent sector

(n) Used when discussing the nonprofit sector to emphasize the important role these organizations play as a "third force" outside of the realm of government and private business

indigenous leadership

(n) A natural occurrence of authority


(n) A fundamental belief in the protection of the rights of the individual against the incursions of the state and of political power


(n) An underlying base or foundation; the basic facilities needed for the functioning of a system


(n) The ability to originate or follow through with a plan of action; the action of taking the first or leading step

in-kind contributions

(n) Contributions of equipment, supplies, or other tangible property as distinguished from monetary grants


(n) Uprightness of character; knowing and doing what is right; the condition, quality or state of being complete or undivided; true to oneself and others

internally displaced person (IDP)

(n) someone who has been forced to flee his or her home for the same reason as a refugee, but remains in his or her own country and has not crossed an international border. Unlike refugees, IDPs are not protected by international law or eligible to receive many types of aid



(n) The principle of moral or ideal rightness; conformity to the law; the abstract principal by which right and wrong are defined; a judge


leadership training

(n) The education of those with or progressing toward a position of authority


(n, pl. –ies) Personal property, money, and other valuables that are bequeathed by will; anything that is handed down from an ancestor, predecessor, or earlier era

Learn and Serve America

(n) A federal program to integrate service into schools and higher education institutions through service-learning


Magna Carta

(n) Meaning The Great Charter in Latin, the charter was propounded in England in 1215 AD and forms the basis of the English system of constitutional law and liberty. Much of American law is based upon principles contained in Magna Carta


(n) A state of poor nutrition caused by either insufficient food supply or by excessive or unbalanced diet

matching grant

(n) A grant that is made to equal funds provided by another donor


(n) A wise and trusted person with relationship to another person

mixed economy

(n) an economy with a mixture of state and private enterprises


(adj.) Of or pertaining to conduct or character from point of right and wrong; teaching a conception of right behavior – moral (n) the lesson to be learned from a story, event or teaching, morals (n) standard of right and wrong, morally (adv.)

moral education

(n) The teaching of values

moral reasoning

(n) The thinking process involved in making judgements about questions of right and wrong


(n) The quality of being morally right; moral behavior


(n) A Muslim house of worship

mutual aid society

(n) A nonprofit organization set up to benefit its members and the community financially and otherwise


National and Community Service Act (1990) & National and Community Service Trust Act (1993)

(n) Federal legislation that enabled the nation to develop and strengthen opportunities for community service for people of all ages


(n) something necessary or indispensable: food, shelter, and other necessities of life

needs assessment

(n) The study of an organization's program or situation to determine what activity or activities should be initiated or expanded to satisfy a need

neighborhood organization

(n) Informal neighborhood clubs that serve social as well as civic functions; formally incorporated nonprofit organizations functioning to help develop housing and jobs in local areas


(v) To communicate with others to gain assistance or support

non-governmental organization (NGO)

(n) Term used by non-American countries to define the nonprofit sector

nonprofit organization

(n) A term describing the Internal Revenue Service's designation of an organization whose income is not used for the benefit or private gain of stockholders, directors, or any other persons with an interest in the company; separate tax treatment exists based on whether it is charitable or not

nonprofit sector

(n) Any not-for-profit or tax-exempt organizations collectively that are specifically not associated with any government, government agency, or commercial enterprise


operating foundation

(n) An organization classified by the IRS as a private foundation whose primary purpose is to conduct research, social welfare, or other programs determined

opportunity cost

(n) The next best alternative that must be given up when a choice is made. Not all alternatives, just the next best choice.



(n) A relationship involving close cooperation between parties, having shared rights and responsibilities; two or more persons who run a business together and share in the profits and losses

peer tutoring

(n) One student helping another student learn


(adj.) Lasting or continuing forever or an unlimited time


(n, pl. –ies) Endless time; eternity; the quality or state of being perpetual


(v) To persist in any purpose or idea; to strive in spite of difficulties or obstacles – perseverance (n)


(n) An individual known for his or her exceptional generosities in support of charitable causes


(n) 1. The giving of one's time, talent or treasure for the sake of another- or for the common good – Robert Payton, 2. Voluntary action for the public good -Robert Payton, 3. Active effort to promote human welfare, 4. A tradition, a spirit, and a sector of society – Maurice G. Gurin and Jon Van Til


(n) A grant to assist a new program or project which is specifically designed to be carried out as a test, usually on a smaller scale, of the feasibility and effectiveness of the program or project before it is fully implemented


(n) A solemn promise; a deposit of something as security for a loan; in fund-raising, a specific promise to donate in the future – pledge (v) to promise or vow


(n) The coexistence of distinct cultural, ethnic, or religious groups within a single society


(n) A judgment formed about a person or group without enough knowledge


(v) To keep or save from destruction or injury


(adj.) Chief; most important – principal (n) the head/master or chief official of a school; a sum of money invested or owed which is separate from the interest

private action

(n) A nongovernmental, nonprofit event

private foundation

(n) A nongovernmental, nonprofit, organization with funds and program managed by its own trustees or directors that was established to maintain or aid social, educational, religious or other charitable activities serving the common welfare, primarily through the making of grants

pro bono

(n) Used to describe work or services done or performed free of charge for charity or a nonprofit organization

program officer

(n) A staff member of a foundation who reviews grant proposals and processes applications for the board of trustees

program-related investment (PRI)

(n) A loan or other investment made by a foundation or corporate giving program to another organization for a project related to the grantmaker's stated charitable purpose and interests


(n) Any object of value owned or lawfully acquired as real estate; a piece of land


(n) A written application, often with supporting documents, submitted to a foundation or corporate giving program in requesting a grant

pro-social behavior

(n) "Social and developmental psychology studies often focus on four types of serving behavior: helping, comforting, rescuing (in distressful situations), and caregiving (with the context of family)" - Bentley and Nissan

public charity

(n) An organization that is tax-exempt and is classified by the IRS as a public charity and not a private foundation; deriving funds from the general public in carrying out services for the common good

public good

(n) Any good that, if supplied to anybody, is necessarily supplied to everybody, and from whose benefits it is impossible or impractical to exclude anybody

public service

(n) To perform a deed that contributes to the general welfare of all

public service announcement

(n) An advertisement broadcast on radio or television, intended to change attitudes by raising awareness about specific issues

public work

(n) Work financed by public funds in service to the general population



(n) Belief that racial differences determine superiority


(n) Someone who has been forced to flee his or her country because of a well-founded fear of persecution

religious institutions

(n) Nonprofit organizations with an organized system of beliefs, rites, and celebrations centered on supernatural being or power


(n) the process of returning to one's home country. The majority of refugees prefer to return home as soon as it is safe to do so after a conflict.

representative democracy

(n) Majority rule; indirect system where voters elect representatives who make decisions for which they are unanswerable for until next election


(n) A nation or state where representatives are elected to exercise the power of government

request for proposal (RFP)

(n) When the government, or a foundation, issues a new contract or grant program, it sends out RFPs to agencies that might be qualified to participate


(n) the process of helping a refugee find a new, permanent home when they cannot safely reside in a country of first asylum or return home


(n) Available supply or support that can be drawn on when needed or wanted


(n) The task an individual is trusted to perform

responsible citizen

(n) A trusted member of a community who obeys laws and respects and helps others


(n) The act or state of orbital motion around a point; the abrupt overthrow of a government; a sudden change in a system

role model

(n) Person who others admire; mentor



(n) The practice of offering something – sacrifice (v) to give up something of value


(n) The lack of a resource, such as money, food, education, or housing

scholarship funds

(n) A grant to an educational institution or organization to provide financial support to assist students, most often for students at the undergraduate level


(n) A federal initiative and a partnership between business, education, government agencies, and community members that teaches career exploration and preparedness for all students regardless of age or academic level


(n) Separation of a group for different treatment


(n) The evaluative judgements made about self-attributed qualities


(n) Putting others needs before ones own


(n) Ability to care for self independently

Senior Service Corps (National)

(n) A program engaging older Americans in addressing urgent issues facing the nation


(n) Awareness of the needs of others

serial reciprocity

(n) A term defining the process occurring when one person gives to another, by means of time, talent or treasure, and thus causes a continual chain of giving to occur in a linear rather than circular pattern– defined


(n) Help given to others; useful work that one is not paid for – service (v) to repair; to furnish a service to something or someone


(n) Goes beyond volunteerism, community service and youth service by connecting the service experience to the school curriculum and by requiring students to reflect on the meaning they attach to the service they performed – W.K. Kellogg Foundation definition

social action

(n) Persons in the process of doing or acting for the general welfare of all

social capital

(see also community capital) (n) Personal investment of time through social interactions that builds trust and enables participants to act together more effectively to pursue shared objectives - Robert Putnam

social fabric

(n) Networking of relationships in the process of doing or acting for the general welfare of all

social justice

(n) Justice applied to the framework of social existence; consideration of the requirements of justice applied to the benefits and burdens of a common existence

social sector

(n) Referring to the nonprofit sector emphasizing work with and to better society


(n) People working together for a common purpose; companionship


(n) [national] When a state claims full self-government; the claim to be the ultimate political authority; [personal] Exercising freedom of decision to empower independence


(adj) Not having enough food to grow or be healthy


(n) An oversimplified opinion formed by associating people with a group; an idea that many people have about a thing or group and that may often be untrue or only partly true


(n) One who manages another's property, finances, or other affairs – stewardship


(n) The conducting, supervising, or managing of something; especially: the careful and responsible management of something entrusted to one's care


(n) a share in ownership, as in a company or corporation


(n) Right to vote

SWOT analysis

(n) An analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to assist in problem-solving


(n) A building in which Jewish worship and religious instruction take place



(n) The aptitude, disposition, or characteristic ability of a person

tax code

(n) The laws and regulations that define the tax system in the United States

tax credit

(n) Credit against tax liability

tax exempt

(adj.) Exempted from tax; bearing tax free interest on federal or state income

tax exempt sector

(n) When referring to the nonprofit sector, emphasizes the fact that under U.S. tax law, the organizations in this sector are exempt from the national income tax and from most state and local property and sales taxes

third sector

(n) Independent sector, non-governmental, non-business sector


(n) A tenth of one's income given voluntarily for the support of a religious institution – tithe (v), tither (n)


(v) to recognize and respect the opinions and rights of others; to endure; to put up with; to suffer – toleration (n), tolerance (adj.), tolerant (adj.)


(n) The doctrines, knowledge, practices, and customs passed down from one generation


(n) Hidden riches; something regarded as valuable – treasure (v) to save and accumulate for future use; to value


(n) Confidence or faith in a person or thing; care or charge; a legal document stating financial relationships between trustees and their beneficiaries

trust capital

(n) Many positive experiences with another person (like doing what you say you'll do) build trust over time and cannot easily be undermined


(n) A member of a governing board


In the Hebrew language the closest word to philanthropy is tzedakah.  While the word is used interchangeably for charity, tzedakah is seen as a form of social justice provided by the donor as well as those who utilize the support to do their work and those who allow the support into their lives.  As is the case with justice, this critical social responsibility cannot be done to someone – rather, it must be done with someone. In Hebrew, the word meaning "to give" is Natan. In Hebrew and in English, the word can be read forward and backward, so when we think about philanthropy and idea of “to give” it is also about “to receive.” So much more than a financial transaction, philanthropy in the spirit of tzedakah builds trusting relationships and recognizes contributions of time, effort, and insight.



(adj) not adhering to the rights guaranteed in the Constitution

universal values

(n) A common set of morals found to be applicable world wide



(n) Morality, goodness or uprightness; a special type of goodness – virtuous (adj.), virtuously (adv.)

voluntary association

(n) A group of people who have formed an organization to pursue voluntary participation

voluntary groups

(n) More than one person working together to make some meaningful degree of voluntary participation

voluntary sector

(n) When referring to the nonprofit sector, emphasizes the significant input that volunteers make to the management and operation of this sector


(n) One who offers himself for a service of his own free will – volunteer (v) to give service


(v) The act of performing a service or good work for others without pay



(n) something wanted or desired


(n) The state of doing well; governmental aid to help the disabled or disadvantaged


youth service

(n) The umbrella term used for all programs that use young people as resources for serving others. Volunteerism, community service and youth service are alike in that each approach offers a means by which young people can provide meaningful and productive service to their communities – W.K. Kellogg Foundation definition



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