Understanding Effectiveness

9, 10, 11, 12

In this lesson the learners will identify several advocacy strategies and draw conclusions as to their effectiveness. They will identify local, state, and/or national concerns for animal welfare that call for advocacy intervention and determine what a successful intervention strategy might look like. They will include these strategies in a plan to address their identified local, state, and/or national concern for animal welfare.

PrintOne to Two 45 to 50 minute class period

The learner will:

  • identify, compare and contrast some types of and styles of advocacies that have been and are being used as a “call to action.”
  • examine advocacy efforts and determine their effectiveness.
  • identify local, state, and/or national concerns that might call for advocacy interventions.
  • determine outcomes for a successful advocacy intervention, addressing some of these identified local, state, and/or national concern.
  • Dr. Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” audio rendition https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm
  • Learners’ copies of Handout One: Types and Styles of Advocacy
  • Learners’ copies of Handout Two: Examples of Advocacy
  • Learners’ copies of Handout Three: Advocacy Worksheet
  • Online or media access for research, or print copies of the Examples of Advocacy information.

For additional related topics and materials see: 


  1. Anticipatory Set: Prior to the start of class have listed on the display board the “Characteristics of Advocates” from Handout Two: Lesson One: Fact Finders, Individualists, Good Listeners, People who Persevere, Reasonable, Credible, Communicators, and Passionate. As the learners enter the classroom, have the “I Have a Dream Speech” by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. playing in the background. (Full audio and script: https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm). Begin the class period by replaying the speech and asking the learners to listen for evidence of the characteristics of advocates in the words of Dr. King.

  2. After hearing Dr. King’s speech, lead a class discussion that identifies the characteristics of an advocate exhibited in this speech.

  3. Encourage the learners to share their “homework” assignment from Lesson One in which they interviewed family members and/or friends about their advocacy experience. Discuss whether and what type of advocacy family members and friends have done. Discuss the types of issues that families are willing to step forward and advocate for.

  4. Record on a chart their responses, clustering them into meaningful categories, such as war, environment, animals, health, and children. Keep this information where it can easily be seen and add to it whenever appropriate during the lessons.

  5. Distribute copies of Handout One: Types and Styles of Advocacy. As you read through the styles of advocacy, provide additional explanation and discuss examples in order to give students an understanding of the variety of forms and intensities that advocacy can take.

  6. Assign learners to groups of two or three and give a copy of Handout Two: Examples of Advocacy to each learner. Distribute a copy of Handout Three: Advocacy Worksheet to each group. Allow groups to choose a historical example from Handout Two, or the teacher may assign one to each group. The group shares responsibilites and researches their example from history. They fill in the information requested on the worksheet and discuss whether the advocacy strategy used was effective or not for addressing the issue.

  7. Have each group report their findings to the rest of the class and share their assessment of the advocacy strategy used in their particular event.

  8. Facilitate a class discussion about what they could learn from these examples about how to successfully advocate on behalf of a present-day issue related to an issue they care about, such as animal cruelty or childhood nutrition or fair housing. They may consider a world, community, or school policy.

  9. Conclude this lesson by having the learners write their reflections on the following Elizabeth Dole quote as it applies to this lesson: “We have learned that power is a positive force if it is used for positive purposes.”


Learner involvement in the classroom discussions as well as the thoroughness and appropriateness of their research and reporting will be the major portion of the assessment for this lesson.

Philanthropy Framework

  1. Strand PHIL.I Definitions of Philanthropy
    1. Standard DP 02. Roles of Government, Business, and Philanthropy
      1. Benchmark HS.6 Describe how the civil society sector is often the origin of new ideas, projects and innovation and social renewal.
  2. Strand PHIL.II Philanthropy and Civil Society
    1. Standard PCS 01. Self, citizenship, and society
      1. Benchmark HS.4 Describe and give examples of characteristics of someone who helps others.
    2. Standard PCS 05. Philanthropy and Government
      1. Benchmark HS.10 Discuss the results of private citizen voluntary action intended for the common good on public policy changes.
      2. Benchmark HS.9 Explain the role that public interest groups play in public policy formation.
    3. Standard PCS 06. Philanthropy in History
      1. Benchmark HS.1 Describe how the common good was served in an historical event as a result of action by a civil society sector organization.
      2. Benchmark HS.2 Give an example of individual philanthropic action that influenced national or world history.
      3. Benchmark HS.3 Describe important events in the growth and maturation of the civil-society sector in the nation and world.
    4. Standard PCS 07. Skills of Civic Engagement
      1. Benchmark HS.1 Utilize the persuasive power of written or oral communication as an instrument of change in the community, nation or the world.
  3. Strand PHIL.III Philanthropy and the Individual
    1. Standard PI 01. Reasons for Individual Philanthropy
      1. Benchmark HS.1 Define and give examples of motivations for giving and serving.