Questions of Courage
The purpose of this lesson is to examine how individuals persevere in the face of discrimination and continue on to impact the course of history for the common good.
The learner will:
- compare the response of Vivien Thomas and that of Hamilton Naki to the discrimination they encountered in the field of medicine.
- analyze the possible motivates a person might have to persevere in spite of adversity.
- create a picture book or role-play events describing the life of Vivien Thomas, Hamilton Naki or any of the other African American inventors/scientists (See Lesson Two).
- Copies of the Discrimination Graphic Organizer (Handout One)
- Copies of the Hamilton Naki Biography https://www.sahistory.org.za/people/hamilton-naki http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamilton_Naki
- Copies of the Picture Book Research Paper Rubric found at http://www.readwritethink.org/lesson_images/ lesson306/frame-rubric.pdf
- Copies of the Questions of Courage (Handout Two)
- Copies of the Vivien Thomas Biography https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vivien_Thomas
- HBO Films-Something the Lord Made (2004) OR PBS Home Video-Partners of the Heart (2002)
- White construction paper one per student.
- Hamilton Naki https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamilton_Naki
- Hamilton Naki Obituary https://www.economist.com/obituary/2005/06/09/hamilton-naki
- HBO Films: Something the Lord Made (2003)
- PBS Video: Partners of the Heart (2002)
- Stefan Timmermans, "A Black Technician and Blue Babies", Social Studies of Science. 33:2 (April 2003), pp.197-229.
- Vivien Thomas https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vivien_Thomas
- Vivien T. Thomas, L.L.D. http://www.medicalarchives.jhmi.edu/vthomas.htm
- Vivien Thomas-United States. Partners of the Heart: Vivien Thomas ad His Work with Alfred Blalock ISBN: 0812216342
- For related topics see also www.learningtogive.org
Teacher notes: Prior to beginning this lesson, students should have seen a movie about the story of Alfred Blalock and Vivien Thomas. They should be familiar with the relationship between these two scientists, as well as a goodunderstanding of segregation in American society.
Ask the totalgroup to think of a time thatthey were in an unfamiliar setting- a new class, a new school, a new neighborhood, and they felt that someone didn't like them without even knowing them? How didthey respond? Did they ever make friends with those people? Have students write their responses individually and then share their answers with a partner. The pairs can share their responses with the total group.
As a total group, generate a list of the words that studentsassociate with discrimination utilizing the Discrimination Graphic Organizer (Handout One). Ask students to explain unfamiliar terms thathave beenlisted. The teacher can ask the students to explain the terms or the teacher can explain the terms.
Following the listing and discussion, ask students to write their own definition of discrimination based on the discussion.
Provide students with reading about the lives of Vivien Thomas and Hamilton Naki or if you have access to a computer direct students to websites that feature on-line for biographies about Hamilton Naki and Vivien Thomas. After the student have readabout the discrimination they faced in the lives and work of each of these men, ask the students to write a new definition of discrimination.
Review incidents in the film and from the on-line biographies that showed discriminationand have the students respond to theQuestions of Courage (Handout Two).
Examine the perseverance of these two individuals in the face of discrimination. Ask the students to write a reflection or journal entry about why they think these two men continued to do this work without recognitionto help promote the common good.
Ask the students to also respond to this question in their journals, "If a philanthropist is someone who gives of his/her time, talent, and/or treasure to promote the common good, might these two men (Hamilton Naki and Vivien Thomas) also be considered philanthropists?""Why? or Why not?"
Distribute asheet of whiteconstruction paper to each student and have them divide their sheet into six equal squares.
Instruct the students as towhat a storyboard isand how to construction one. Often astoryboard is a sequencing of still pictures(usually with captions) that are arranged in such a manner that they represent the important events of a story that is being told or one that is being retold.
Instruct the students that they are to draw a picture in each square thatrepresentsthe selected sequence of events, along with captions, that retells the story ofeither Vivien Thomas or Hamilton Naki and that they are tokeep in mind that these storyboards will be shared shown and read to younger students.
Distribute copies of the Picture Book Research Paper Rubric http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/lesson_images/lesson306/frame-rubric.pdf and review the rubric.
Review the sequence of events from either Vivien Thomas or Hamilton Naki story with students. Model the creation of a storyboard with the students prior to the writing assignment - see Storyboard. Students can create their own storyboards alone or with a partner. The storyboard can be used to role play the sequence of events for a younger audience or to create a picture book, along with captions, that retells the story of either Vivien Thomas or Hamilton Naki which can be shown and read to younger students. Assessment will be based on the Picture Book Research Paper Rubric: http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/lesson_images/lesson306/frame-rubric.pdf
Investigate a global community that does not respect the rights ofminorities, contact Amnesty International to determine what can be done to petition the government of the country. Investigate anti-bullying and related diversity strategies with the result being the development of a plan for the school community.
Strand PHIL.II Philanthropy and Civil Society
Standard PCS 02. Diverse Cultures
Benchmark MS.5 Discuss examples of groups denied their rights in history.
Standard PCS 05. Philanthropy and Government
Benchmark MS.12 Identify the dilemma of minority rights in a pure democracy.
Strand PHIL.III Philanthropy and the Individual
Standard PI 01. Reasons for Individual Philanthropy
Benchmark MS.2 Explain and give examples of enlightened self-interest, egoism, and altruism as they relate to philanthropy.
Benchmark MS.4 Identify and describe the actions of how citizens act for the common good.